As the availability of fresh water become scarce, it is ever more important to search for new avenues of drinking water. Desalination is a separation process mainly used to recover fresh water by reducing salt content from saline water- either sea water or brackish water.
There are many ways to accomplish such task however conventionally this have been done by boiling the salt water and then condensing to get fresh water. On this principle Multi Stage Flash (MSF), Multi Effect Distillation (MED) and Vapor Compression (VC). Thermally driven technologies require metallic evaporators that flashes or distills sea water to obtain product water.
Recently, rapidly growing and more common way to desalinate is based on pressure-driven membrane operation such as Reverse Osmosis (RO). Depending on water quality RO based desalination process is called Brackish Water Reverse Osmosis (BWRO) and Sea Water Reverse Osmosis (SWRO). It is relatively cost-effective, energy efficient and robust approach to get product water.
Following are advantages for RO based desalination:
Typical Operation Layout